Endangered Penguins
Home Up Biology and Breeding Endangered Penguins Treasure Oil Spill Bibliography


Galapagos Penguins
Yellow-eyed penguins
Crested penguins
African penguins
Other penguins

Here you will find some information about the present dangers to each of the different types of penguins.

Note there is a separate section on the recent oil spill in South Africa

All the information on these pages is based on the recent Penguin Conservation Assessment and Management Plan (CAMP) prepared and published by IUCN.

The IUCN defines several categories; these, in decreasing order of threat to a population are:




Extinct in the wild


Critically Endangered






Near Threatened


Lower Risk

The CAMP report provides the following assessment for penguins

Species and sub-species

Common Name

IUCN Category

Eudyptula minor albosignata White-flippered penguin Endangered
Eudyptes sclateri Erect-crested penguin Endangered
Spheniscus mendiculus Galapagos penguin Endangered
Eudyptes robustus Snares penguin Vulnerable
Eudyptes pachyrhynchus Fiordland penguin Vulnerable
Eudyptes schegeli Royal penguin Vulnerable
Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome Southern Rockhopper penguin Vulnerable
Eudyptes c. filholi Eastern Rockhopper penguin Vulnerable
Eudyptes c. moseleyi Northern Rockhopper penguin Vulnerable
Megadyptes antipodes Yellow-eyed penguin Vulnerable
Spheniscus humboldti Humboldt penguin Vulnerable
Spheniscus demersus African penguin Vulnerable
Eudyptes chrysolophus Macaroni penguin Near Threatened
Spheniscus magellanicus Magellanic penguin Near Threatened / Lower Risk
Aptenodytes forsteri Emperor penguin Lower Risk
Aptenodytes patagonicus King penguin Lower Risk
Pygocelis adeliae Adelie penguin Lower Risk
Pygocelis antarctica Chinstrap penguin Lower Risk
Pygocelis papua Gentoo penguin Lower Risk
Eudyptula minor Little penguin Lower Risk

We have provided some further information about the specific threats to some of these species on the separate pages listed at the top on the left.