There are many ways in which penguins are adapted to their environment. We have listed a few below.
Penguins have white fronts and black backs. This colouration acts as a form of camouflage when they are in the water - the dark backs make it difficult for predators such as Leopard seals to see penguins from above against the dark sea floor while the light coloured fronts make them hard to see from below against the bright sky.
Penguins have a special system of feathers with the parts of the feather close to the body trapping a lot of air and so making for good insulation against the cold, while the outer tips interlock with one another to provide a waterproof outer layer.
Penguins also have special adaptations to allow them to drink sea water and excrete the salt from a special gland near their eyes. They also have adaptations that allow them to dive to great depths and stay submerged for long periods without the need to breathe.
Some species of penguin (those that live in the coldest climates) also have adaptations of their circulatory systems that allow them to keep their main organs warm, but let other parts of their body operate at lower temperatures.