Egg to chick
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The Life Cycle of Penguins: Egg to Chick

Without trying to address the old chestnut "which came first, the penguin or the egg?", we can at least assert that all penguins today start out as eggs.  The eggs are incubated, usually by both parents taking turns, for up to 8 weeks depending on the species - larger penguins lay larger eggs which take longer to incubate.  The development of the embryo in the egg follows a similar path to that of any bird - you will find plenty of examples of the development of chicken eggs in biology textbooks, and for all practical purposes you can consider penguin eggs to follow the same stages (although the timescale of the development will differ).

Once the chick is fully developed it chips its way out of the egg using an "egg-tooth" on the end of its beak.  Most penguin chicks take around a day to fully extract themselves from their eggs.  Once they emerge from the eggs the chicks are at the mercy of the elements.  They have very little protection from the cold or wet, so they rely on their parents for warmth and shelter as well as for food.